REDD+ Offers Hope In Battle Against Deforestation

Innovative Conservation Models Can Refine REDD+

In December 2015, with the signing of the Paris Agreement, the nations of the world reached agreement on a historic, collective and comprehensive approach to combat climate change. The primary goal of the agreement, under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), is to hold the increase in global average temperature to well below 2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels and try to limit the increase to 1.5 degrees C. Within that agreement is a recognition of the critical role of forests, including actions to halt and reverse the rate of deforestation and forest degradation in developing countries, which have contributed up to 20 percent of annual greenhouse gas emissions.

deforestation and global warming

To assist countries in these actions, the agreement includes a framework of policies and incentives for reducing deforestation and forest degradation and increasing carbon storage in forests through conservation and sustainable management. This is known as REDD+.

REDD+ has evolved over a decade of discussions, research and negotiations to become a key piece of the newly adopted climate architecture. It is flexible by design, as it recognizes the significant differences across countries in terms of societal and governance structures, histories, laws, economies, and ecological and environmental factors. It is intended to support the necessary economic transitions and shifts to sustainable landscape management as part of a country’s low carbon development. To ensure that it contributes to the environmental integrity of the climate regime, REDD+ requires a national commitment—not isolated projects. No more foundational decisions are needed for REDD+ to be fully implemented.

The adoption of the Paris Agreement in 2015 solidified the foundation for REDD+. The agreement referenced, in a single paragraph, the entire body of decisions, including the objectives, rules, guidelines and guiding principles for REDD+. The focus now is on actions to implement and support REDD+ initiatives. To do so, a solid understanding of REDD+ and the Paris Agreement is needed. We must understand what REDD+ is, in a manner that is accessible to policy makers, scientists and civil society and in a form that is completely consistent with the UNFCCC decisions and agreements.

The broad intent of REDD+ is to help countries shift to low-emissions development pathways by increasing the value of healthy forests relative to other land uses.

Greenhouse gas emissions are at an all-time high. If emissions are not reduced, it will be nearly impossible to hold global warming to below 2 degrees C. One of the best ways to address this challenge is to keep trees standing, as healthy forests are one of the largest store houses of carbon. And unhealthy forests—those that have been degraded or deforested—are the largest sources of greenhouse gas emissions, after the burning of fossil fuels.

reforestation and climate change

An approach called REDD+ is one of the most promising means for keeping trees standing in developing countries. “REDD” stands for “reducing emissions from deforestation and degradation.” The thought leaders behind REDD+ agreed that incentives are necessary not only to reduce emissions by tackling the drivers of forest loss, but also to avoid emissions and increase storage by taking proactive measures to conserve and restore forests.

The aim of REDD+ is to slowly halt and reverse forest cover and carbon loss in developing countries. The broad intent of REDD+ is to help countries shift to low-emissions development pathways by increasing the value of healthy forests relative to other land uses. Achieving and sustaining the objectives of REDD+ requires the transformation of economic activities within and outside of the forests, often referred to as the drivers of deforestation and forest degradation.

REDD+ was born in 2005 but its importance was not fully and formally recognized until December 2015, when the 197 parties to the UNFCCC adopted the Paris Agreement—a landmark global pact to curb climate change. Recognizing REDD+ in the Paris Agreement was seen as a means to highlight and validate the system of incentives for developing countries to conserve forests in the context of poverty reduction and economic development. It also filled a gap left by the Kyoto Protocol, which went into effect in 2005.

Prior to the Paris Agreement, the Kyoto Protocol was the main tool to achieve the objective of the UNFCCC–reducing greenhouse gas emissions and avoiding the worst impacts of climate change. However, the protocol did not include emissions caused by the unsustainable exploitation and destruction of forests in developing countries. With the Paris Agreement in place, REDD+ is now a key piece of the new climate architecture adopted by every country in the world. No additional foundational decisions are needed for REDD+ to be fully implemented. The focus now is on implementation and support of REDD+.

reforestation and carbon capture

REDD+ In A Nutshell

REDD+ is a voluntary approach for developing countries and includes five activities:

  •  Reduce emissions from deforestation;
  • Reduce emissions from forest degradation;
  • Conserve forest carbon stocks;
  • Sustainably manage forests; and
  • Enhance forest carbon stocks.

REDD+ includes four components:

  • A national strategy or action plan;
  • A national forest reference level as the basis for accounting the results of REDD+ activities;
  • A national forest monitoring system; and
  • A system for reporting how all of the REDD+ social and environmental safeguards are being addressed and respected throughout the implementation of the activities.

Countries implementing REDD+ pass three phases:

  • The development of national strategies or action plans, policies and measures, and capacity-building;
  • The implementation of national policies and measures, as well as national strategies or action plans, that could involve capacity building, technology development and transfer, and results based demonstration activities; and
  • Results-based actions that should be fully measured, reported and verified.

Financial support for REDD+ may come from a variety of sources, such as the public and private sectors and bilateral and multilateral agreements. This funding may include payments for emissions reductions achieved through the implementation of REDD+ activities. These are called results-based payments.

How are unintended negative social and environmental impacts avoided?

The 2010 Cancun Agreements established a set of seven social and environmental safeguards when implementing REDD+ activities, as well as guidance for systems to provide information on how countries are implementing the safeguards. Countries should start providing a summary of that safeguard information to the UNFCCC once they begin implementing REDD+ activities and periodically, thereafter.

deforestation Tanzania and Kenya

Doing so is a means for reducing or eliminating the potential negative impacts REDD+ could have on social and environmental values, beyond GHG emissions and associated climate change. The social safeguards promote and support good governance, respect for the knowledge and rights of indigenous people and members of local communities, and the full and effective participation of relevant stakeholders in the development and implementation of REDD+ activities. The environmental safeguards promote and support the conservation of natural forests and biological diversity. This helps ensure that REDD+ actions are not used for the conversion of natural forests, but are, instead, used to incentivize the protection and conservation of natural forests and their ecosystem services, as well as to enhance other social and environmental benefits.

The 2015 Paris Agreement highlights the role forests and other carbon stores (known as “sinks and reservoirs”) should play in meeting global and national climate change mitigation goals. In particular, Article 5 of the agreement highlights the role of forests in curbing climate change and effectively recognizes all of the existing guidance for REDD+ previously agreed to by the COP. This article states that all nations should take action to conserve and enhance the role of “sinks and reservoirs of greenhouse gases,” which include biomass, forests and oceans as well as other terrestrial, coastal and marine ecosystems.62 Nations are encouraged to take action to implement and support the existing REDD+ framework as set out in related guidance and decisions.63 This can be done in several ways, including through results-based payments. As specified in Article 4 of the Paris Agreement, REDD+ activities will also contribute to the goal of achieving a balance between anthropogenic emissions by sources and removals by sinks of greenhouse gases in the second half of this century.

climate change and deforestation

Sacred Seedlings is a global initiative to support forest conservation, reforestation, urban forestry, sustainable agriculture, carbon capture and wildlife conservation. Sustainable land management and land use are critical to the survival of entire ecosystems. Sacred Seedlings is a U.S.-based program that supports the vision of local stakeholders. We have projects ready across Africa. We seek additional projects elsewhere around the world. We also seek volunteers, sponsors and donors of cash and in-kind support. Write to Gary Chandler for more information gary@crossbow1.com Together, we can stop deforestation and preserve biodiversity.

India Plants 50 Million Trees To Fight Climate Change

Reforestation Employed To Defend Ecosystems

By Brian Clark Howard, National Geographic

India reports that volunteers planted 49.3 million tree saplings on July 11, shattering the previous record for most trees planted in a single day. That record was set by Pakistan in 2013 by planting 847,275 trees.

A reported 800,000 volunteers from Uttar Pradesh worked for 24 hours planting 80 different species of trees along roads, railways, and on public land. The saplings were raised on local nurseries.

deforestation and climate change

The effort is part of the commitment India made at the Paris Climate Conference in December 2015. In the agreement, signed on Earth Day 2016, India agreed to spend $6 billion to reforest 12 percent of its land (bringing total forest cover to 235 million acres by 2030, or about 29 percent of the country’s territory).

Trees sequester carbon dioxide from the air, thereby reducing the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. India has experienced substantial loss of its forest cover over the past few centuries, as people cut down trees for firewood, pasture, and to make room for development.

Other countries are also replanting trees. In December, African nations pledged to reforest 100 million hectares. A wide range of stakeholders, from countries to companies, also signed on to the non-binding New York Declaration of Forests that month, with the goal of halving deforestation by 2020 and ending it by 2030. The declaration also seeks to restore at least 350 million hectares of degraded land with healthy forests.

Still, the young trees aren’t out of the woods, yet. Saplings need water and care and are susceptible to disease. Experience shows mortality rates as high as 40 percent after such massive tree plantings. Officials will monitor the trees with aerial photography, to see which areas may need special attention.

reforestation and carbon capture

 

“The world has realized that serious efforts are needed to reduce carbon emissions to mitigate the effects of global climate change,” Uttar Pradesh Chief Minister Akhilesh Yadav said at an event promoting the planting.

Officials also hope the trees will improve air quality in India, which suffers from some of the worst in the world. Trees can help remove some pollutants from the air. Right now, six of the top 10 most polluted cities in the world are in the country.

Uttar Pradesh is the most populous state in India, a nation of 1.25 billion people. Some of them may be able to breathe a little easier, and find shade under the trees.

“The biggest contribution of this tree planting project is, apart from the tokenism, that it focuses on the major issues,” said Anit Mukherjee, policy fellow with the Centre for Global Development. “It addresses many of the big issues for India: pollution, deforestation, and land use.”

Reforestation News via http://news.nationalgeographic.com/2016/07/india-plants-50-million-trees-uttar-pradesh-reforestation/

climate change and deforestation

Sacred Seedlings is a global initiative to support forest conservation, reforestation, urban forestry, sustainable agriculture and wildlife conservation. Sustainable land management and land use are critical to the survival of entire ecosystems. Sacred Seedlings is a U.S.-based program that supports the vision of local stakeholders. We have projects ready across Africa. We seek additional projects elsewhere around the world. We also seek volunteers, sponsors and donors of cash and in-kind support. Write to Gary Chandler for more information gary@crossbow1.com

China Reforestation Becoming A Global Model

Economic Growth Has Taken Its Toll On China’s Natural Resources

The Chinese government has payed close attention to ecological and environmental issues for years. Contrary to popular belief, sustainability and environmental protection are long-term strategies vital to the country’s health and wealth.

climate change and deforestation

China started framing environmental protection as a fundamental national policy in the 1980s. It established sustainable development as a national strategy in the 1990s. At the turn of the century, the government proposed a “Scientific Outlook on Development” that is people-centered, fully coordinated, and environmentally sustainable. Since 2012, the government has incorporated Eco-civilization into the national blueprint, which outlines a commitment to “innovative, coordinated, green, open and shared development.”

This blueprint has given great impetus to the implementation of Eco-civilization with environmental quality at its core aiming at making the skies bluer, mountains greener, water cleaner, and the ecological environment better.

President Xi Jinping has pointed out that green is gold and that moving towards a new era of eco-civilization and building a beautiful China are key to realizing the Chinese Dream of rejuvenating the nation.

Since its reform and opening-up thirty years ago, the country has seen its economy grow at an annual average of 9.8 percent. It has successfully transitioned from a low-income to a high middle-income country with significant economic achievements, almost having reached levels of industrialization and urbanization that took one to two hundred years in developed countries.

Meanwhile, China has paid a heavy environmental price, with the emergence of problems such as soot pollution, ozone depletion, fine particulate matters (PM2.5), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Pollution from different sources – production and households, urban and rural, industry and transport – appear to be intertwined with each other.

China deforestation

For years China was notorious for denuding its forests of vegetation to expand its economy. The economy grew, but water sources were tainted, air polluted and animal habitats demolished. Only a few years ago, just two percent of China’s forests were undisturbed. Deadly floods in 1998 caused by the lack of trees prompted the government to finally take action. They implemented the National Forest Conservation Program.

China banned logging in many areas and then paid farmers, who were accustomed to earning money by cutting down trees for wood, to plant trees instead. Some local citizens were paid to monitor forests and report illegal logging activity. The Chinese government claims that the conservation and reforestation plans are working.

Scientists from the University of Michigan evaluated the Chinese government’s conservation measures using images from NASA’s Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer. They studied data between 2000 and 2010 and found forest cover has grown rapidly in 1.6 percent of China. That may not sound like much, but it’s about 61,000 square miles. Meanwhile. 0.38 percent of the nation suffered from deforestation – that’s around 14,400 square miles.

deforestation China

The research isn’t simply a green light for China to continue every current policy. They’re importing more wood now, from countries such as Vietnam, Madagascar, and Russia, which the scientists warned causes deforestation in those other countries.

China plans to cover nearly a quarter of the country in forest by 2020, according to an announcement made via a United Nations report. The goal is part of a larger plan to build an ecological civilization that will serve as a model for future projects around the world.

“The outdated view that man can conquer nature and ignore the bearing capacity of resources and the environment should be completely abandoned,” said Zhu Guangyao, executive vice president of the Chinese Ecological Civilization Research and Promotion Association. “Conscientious efforts should be made to live in harmony with nature.”

giant panda conservation

In addition to planting, the country will also step up efforts to restore 35 percent of the natural shorelines, reclaim more than half of the desert, and increase prairie vegetation coverage by 56 percent.

“If China succeeds in implementing targets outlined in its ecological blue print, then it will have taken a major step towards shifting to a greener economy,” Achim Steiner, UNEP executive director, said.

To address the dilemmas between economic development and resource/environmental constraints, the government has most recently proposed a policy of pursuing green development and building an Eco-civilization, which involves management of the relationship between humans and nature in a comprehensive, scientific, and systematic manner. It embodies the green is gold perspective of values, development, and governance. It goes beyond and does away with the traditional development patterns and models, guiding the transformation of the production methods and the lifestyle of the entire society.

As China firmly supports and actively implements the concept and actions of sustainable development at the global level, its effort to build an Eco-civilization will make a significant contribution to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The country’s practices and experiments to promote an Eco-civilization will not only contribute to addressing its own resource and environmental challenges but also serve as demonstrations for other developing countries that may wish to avoid the dependence on, and the lock-in effect of traditional development pathways. This is conducive to promoting the establishment of a new global environmental governance system and benefitting the noble course of sustainable development for all people, men and women.

Reforestation China via http://reliefweb.int/report/china/green-gold-strategy-and-actions-china-s-ecological-civilization

climate change and deforestation

Sacred Seedlings is a global initiative to support forest conservation, reforestation, urban forestry, sustainable agriculture and wildlife conservation. Sustainable land management and land use are critical to the survival of entire ecosystems. Sacred Seedlings is a U.S.-based program that supports the vision of local stakeholders. We have projects ready across Africa. We seek additional projects elsewhere around the world. We also seek volunteers, sponsors and donors of cash and in-kind support. Write to Gary Chandler for more information gary@crossbow1.com

Carbon Capture With Reforestation

Reforestation The Only Proven Carbon Capture Option Available

Editor’s Note: A solid premise, but the best way to suck carbon dioxide from the atmosphere is with trees and other forms of greenery. 

Governments may have to extract vast amounts of greenhouse gases from the air by 2100 to achieve a target for limiting global warming, backed by trillion-dollar shifts towards clean energy, a draft U.N. report showed on Wednesday. A 29-page summary for policymakers, seen by Reuters, says most scenarios show that rising carbon emissions will have to plunge by 40 to 70 percent between 2010 and 2050 to give us a chance of restricting global warming to U.N. targets.

reforestation and forest conservation

The report, outlining solutions to climate change, is due to be published in Germany in April after editing by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC). It will be the third in a series by the IPCC, updating science from 2007.

It says the world is doing too little to achieve a goal agreed in 2010 of limiting warming to below 2 degrees above pre-industrial times, seen as a threshold for dangerous floods, heatwaves, droughts and rising sea levels. To get on track, governments may have to turn ever more to technologies for carbon dioxide removal (CDR) from the air, ranging from capturing and burying emissions from coal-fired power plants to planting more forests that use carbon to grow.

Most projects for capturing carbon dioxide from power plants are experimental. Among big projects, Saskatchewan Power in Canada is overhauling its Boundary Dam power plant to capture a million tonnes of carbon dioxide a year. 

And, if the world overshoots concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere consistent with the 2C goal, most scenarios for getting back on track “deploy CDR technologies to an extent that net global carbon dioxide emissions become negative” before 2100, it says.

Temperatures have already risen by 0.8C since the Industrial Revolution. To limit warming, the report estimates the world would have to invest an extra $US147 billion ($164 billion) a year in low-carbon energies, such as wind, solar or nuclear power from 2010 to 2029. At the same time, investments in fossil fuel energy would have to be reduced by $US30 billion annually. And several hundred billion dollars a year would have to go on energy efficiency in major sectors such as transport, buildings and industry.

deforestation and global warming

By contrast, it said that global annual investments in the energy system are now about $US1.2 trillion. And it says there are huge opportunities for cleaning up, for instance by building cities that use less energy for a rising world population. “Most of the world’s urban areas have yet to be constructed,” it says.

Overall, the report estimates that the costs of combating global warming would reduce global consumption of goods and services by between 1 and 4 percent in 2030, 2-6 percent in 2050 and 2-12 percent in 2100, compared to no action.

The IPCC said in September that it is at least 95 percent probable that human activities, led by the burning of fossil fuels, are the dominant cause of global warming since the 1950s, up from 90 percent in a 2007 assessment.

The world has agreed to work out a global U.N. deal by the end of 2015, entering into force from 2020, to fight climate change. But progress has been sluggish.

deforestation Tanzania and Kenya

“Global greenhouse gases have risen more rapidly between 2000 and 2010,” the draft says, with greater reliance on coal than in previous decades. China, the United States and the European Union are the top emitters.

The IPCC cautioned that the findings in the draft, dated Dec. 17, were subject to change. “This is a work in progress which will be discussed and revised in April,” said Jonathan Lynn, spokesman for the IPCC in Geneva.

The report adds many details to earlier drafts. The IPCC’s credibility suffered in 2007 after one of its reports wrongly said that Himalayan glaciers could all melt by 2035, centuries earlier than experts reckon. The draft says that only the most radical curbs outlined in an IPCC report in September would give a better than 66 percent chance of keeping temperature rises below 2C. The scenario corresponds to greenhouse gas concentrations of 430 to 480 parts per million in the atmosphere – up from about 400 now.

Read more: http://www.smh.com.au/environment/climate-change/sucking-co2-from-atmosphere-may-be-only-way-to-meet-climate-goals-un-report-says-20140116-30vnr.html#ixzz2qVdwqVwr

climate change and deforestation

Sacred Seedlings is a global initiative to support forest conservation, reforestation, urban forestry, carbon capture, sustainable agriculture and wildlife conservation. Sustainable land management and land use are critical to the survival of entire ecosystems.

Sacred Seedlings is a U.S.-based program that supports the vision of local stakeholders. We have projects ready across Africa. We seek additional projects elsewhere around the world. We also seek volunteers, sponsors and donors of cash and in-kind support. Write to Gary Chandler for more information gary@crossbow1.com

Reforestation Offers New Hope For Haiti

Haitian Reforestation Vital To Stabilization

Small farmers could play an important part in making Haiti – where just two percent of trees are still standing – green again. With a population of 10 million and Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of 7.8 billion dollars, Haiti, the Western Hemisphere’s poorest country, has been crippled by environmental degradation for several years. But there is a flicker of hope for the country and its neighbor, Dominican Republic (DR), with which it shares the island of Hispaniola.

reforestation and carbon capture

Inspired by the success of its Humbo forestry project in Ethiopia, developed under the Kyoto Protocol’s Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), World Vision Australia has just completed a scoping mission to both countries, to examine the potential for natural regeneration of forests through “Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration” (FMNR).

“Healthy lives for children and their families are underpinned by a healthy environment and so more and more we’ve been looking at how we can help communities to build sustainable environments, and particularly in the face of climate change this is becoming increasingly important,” Timothy Morris, World Vision’s business unit manager, food security and climate change, told IPS on the sidelines of the United Nations climate change conference underway here at the national stadium of Poland.

The CDM allows for reforestation projects to earn carbon credits (Certified Emission Reductions – CER’s) for each ton of carbon dioxide equivalent “sequestered” or absorbed by the forest. In the case of World Vision’s Humbo project, revenue continues to be generated for the communities who manage the forest assets under seven cooperatives, representing almost 50,000 people.

“We understood that Haiti is an area that is being heavily degraded through deforestation, a high population and the need for fuels,” Morris said.

“There is already a firm foundation to build on in some areas where present and past forestry and agroforestry projects had been implemented,” Rinaudo told IPS.
“I met individuals who valued and cared for trees – fruit, timber, charcoal – successfully.”

Rinaudo stressed that FMNR is certainly not a new concept since he “saw cases of it on some farm borders, in some cases within cropland”. But he said this understanding can be built on – to improve technique, scale up activities – and create greater awareness and practice.

“There is enormous potential for FMNR – for example, with prosopis which is a very aggressive thorny species. With systematic management a sustainable charcoal, pole, timber, honey, fodder industry could be established,” he told IPS. “There is already a firm foundation to build on in some areas where present and past forestry and agroforestry projects had been implemented.”

Indi McLymont-Lafayette, regional coordinator for Panos Caribbean, which works to give voice to poor and marginalized communities, said that some grassroots groups in Haiti were already actively involved in this issue.

“We have been working over the past two and a half years implementing a project looking at the rehabilitation after the earthquake,” she said.

reforestation and forest conservation

“We include climate change and biodiversity issues with policy making. Part of that has entailed working with areas that have reforestation initiatives and one of the organizations in Haiti, Fondation Seguin, is very crucial, I think, for collaboration because they are already doing tremendous work in reforestation so I think World Vision could bring value to what is already being done.”

World Vision has had tremendous success with a community-managed forestry project in the Humbo region of Ethiopia, 342 kilometers south of the capital Addis Ababa. Over a 30-year crediting period, it is estimated that more than 880,000 tons of carbon dioxide equivalent will be removed from the atmosphere, making a significant contribution to mitigating climate change.

Prior to the project, Humbo’s mountainous terrain was highly degraded and chronically drought prone. Poverty, hunger and increasing demand for agricultural land had driven local communities to overexploit forest resources.

Hurricane-ravaged Haiti and the Dominican Republic are among the countries most affected by climate change. A study by the World Bank released this week states that if the sea continues to rise at the current rate, Santo Domingo, the capital of DR, will be one of the five cities most affected at a global level by climate change in 2050.

Another report released here shows that Haiti led the list of the three countries most affected by weather-related catastrophes in 2012.

A continuously growing urban population and an increasing demand for charcoal and fuel wood have all contributed to depleting Haiti’s natural environment. But Morris said the two Caribbean nations stand to reap many benefits from a forestry regeneration project.

“When we do this kind of work there are multiple benefits that can come from it, particularly in a coastal environment and environments that are exposed to storm activity,” Morris told IPS.

“The sorts of things that we would like to do by regenerating and planting trees are to enhance soil integrity; prevent erosion; build coastal land integrity for resilience to storm surge and coastal inundation; and to re-establish the natural asset base of the area for more sustainable usage over the long term.”

He said there could also be benefits in the form of increased food production, since “often we find that once we get into this technique – particularly around the water catchment areas and steep slopes – it can improve the soil integrity” for agricultural purposes.

Source: http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/11/new-hope-for-haitis-decimated-forests/

climate change and deforestation

Sacred Seedlings is a global initiative to support forest conservation, reforestation, urban forestry, carbon capture, sustainable agriculture and wildlife conservation. Sustainable land management and land use are critical to the survival of entire ecosystems.

Sacred Seedlings is a U.S.-based program that supports the vision of local stakeholders. We have projects ready across Africa. We seek additional projects elsewhere around the world. We also seek volunteers, sponsors and donors of cash and in-kind support. Write to Gary Chandler for more information gary@crossbow1.com

Urban Forestry Project Improves Watershed, Community

Urban Forestry Offers Many Benefits

Thousands of trees planted at Charlottetown’s new well field site in Miltonvale Park are creating an environment for wildlife, an extra water source for residents and an educational tool for young students.

The presence of nesting bald eagles, snowshoe hares and more than 40 different species of birds is evidence that this site in Miltonvale Park is more than just a new source of water.On the outskirts of Charlottetown lies 206 acres of land the municipal corporation purchased in order to develop a second source of water.

reforestation and forest conservation

Five wells are being developed in Miltonvale Park to help ease the strain on the the Winter River-Tracadie Bay Watershed which, at the moment, is the only source of water for the capital city. The site consists of several abandoned farm fields, a section of woodland, two streams and a pond.

Last year, ecological management of the site began in the form of a reforestation project. The project will help to increase biodiversity, improve water quality and create an overall healthy ecosystem. With the help of Tree Canada’s TD Green Streets program, the City of Charlottetown and provincial government were able to start planting trees at the site.

“We’ve planted in the last couple of years close to 10,000 trees,” said Beth Hoar, parkland conservationist with the city.

The public has helped plant trees and even students at Queen Charlotte Intermediate School have shown up to help.

A small holding bed was created and will provide a source of native trees for this and other city reforestation projects as well as trees for natural areas in city parks.

Reforestation continued this year. An assessment of the 2012 plantings determined that most of the species had survival rates above 90 per cent.

“(Trees) stop erosion and they clean pollutants from the air and water so (reforestation) is really important as far as the water quality is concerned. We also want to increase for environmental reasons biodiversity on the site and provide better wildlife habitat and food,” Hoar said.

The site includes such bird species as bobolinks and barn swallows, both of which have been listed as threatened by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

reforestation and carbon capture

“I think having forests and wildlands within our urban areas is important. We do have urban wildlife populations so we’re creating habitat for them.”

Patches of large hardwoods were spread throughout a field of softwood saplings that had been planted previously by the Department of Agriculture and Forestry. Reforestation of a field just north of this area began by planting a mixture of hardwoods, softwoods and shrubs of varying sizes.

Gaps in the hedgerows were filled with smaller trees and shrubs such as common apple, hawthorn and beaked hazelnut. Efforts to eliminate any invasive species on the property continued with the removal of glossy buckthorn, purple loosestrife and a common ornamental called autumn joy. The holding bed was also maintained throughout this past summer with weeding, mulching, pruning and watering activities.

Jason MacEachern, a graduate of Holland College’s wildlife conservation technology program, said it’s amazing to see how ecologically rich the site has become, especially considering the urban setting.

“Even when you’re out on the site there you’d never tell that you’re in an urban environment,” said MacEachern, who has been involved in the project all along.

Ramona Doyle, project officer with the city’s Water and Sewer Utility, said the site would also serve an educational component.

“We’ve taken students out there and we can show them where the (new) well field will be. I think connecting kids with the water source is very important,” Doyle said.

As for planting trees, Doyle says it’s a great awareness piece to water protection.

“The trees are very valuable in terms of maintaining water quality which is a major concern of ours; making sure the ground retains the water and filters the water.”

Water isn’t expected to flow from the Miltonvale Park site into Charlottetown homes until 2016 but the site is already proving to pay dividends for the environment.

Source: http://www.journalpioneer.com/News/Local/2013-10-28/article-3449781/Planting-an-urban-forest/1

climate change and deforestation

Sacred Seedlings is a global initiative to support forest conservation, reforestation, urban forestry, carbon capture, sustainable agriculture and wildlife conservation. Sustainable land management and land use are critical to the survival of entire ecosystems.

Sacred Seedlings is a U.S.-based program that supports the vision of local stakeholders. We have projects ready across Africa. We seek additional projects elsewhere around the world. We also seek volunteers, sponsors and donors of cash and in-kind support. Write to Gary Chandler for more information gary@crossbow1.com

Reforestation Project in China Earns Carbon Credits

Carbon Capture An Emerging Priority In China

A project that has reforested 3,000 hectares of previously barren land in China’s southwest Guangxi is issuing its first carbon credits under the Clean Development Mechanism. The Facilitating Reforestation for Guangxi Watershed Management in Pearl River Basin Project was the first reforestation project to be registered in the world under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, which yesterday issued 131,964 temporary Certified Emission Reductions.

giant panda conservation

“With fast restoration and expansion of forest areas in recent years, China has great potential for carbon sequestration through afforestation and reforestation. The Guangxi project has demonstrated an innovative and effective approach to mitigating climate change,” said Klaus Rohland, World Bank’s Country Director for China.

The Guangxi Watershed in the Pearl River Basin, one of the richest and most diverse areas in terms of flora in the country, suffered greatly from deforestation since the 1950s. This, in addition to grazing, frequent fires and the use of wood for fuel, caused severe degradation of the original native forest. Despite efforts to restore forests in the 1990s, many areas remained either bare or sparsely populated with trees.

Supported by the provincial and local governments, local farmer communities are working with Kangyuan and Fuyuan forest farms, Xinghuan Forestry Development Company and Luhuan Forestry Development Company to restore the forest by planting mostly native species. Reforestation in this degraded region has played a vital role in terms of biodiversity, soil, and water conservation. The plantations established along the Pearl River, the third longest river in China, support both conservation and watershed management by controlling water erosion, and enhance biodiversity by improving habitats, increasing the connectivity of forests adjacent to nature reserves.

deforestation and climate change

On a local level, the project uses innovative approaches, by enabling the carbon sequestered by trees to act as a “virtual cash crop”. Communities benefit from the direct income from the sale of the carbon credits to the World Bank’s BioCarbon Fund and from the products such as resin that the trees provide. Together, the villages decide which projects will be implemented, and local forestry companies provide them with training and technical services. In addition to providing a steady income from the sale of carbon credits and forestry products, the project will be able to involve about 15,000 local farmers in the planting and maintenance process, creating about 3.8 million person-days in temporary jobs and 30 long-term job positions over the 30-year crediting period.

The project has also raised the awareness of climate change among villagers. “We never realized that we could benefit from selling fresh air, said 47-year old Tan Jiming from Leyi Village in Huanjiang County of Guangxi. Registered in 2007, this project helps to demonstrate that carbon revenues can enhance the long-term financial sustainability of a project as well as building forestry management capacity at both central and provincial levels. In 2010, the China Green Carbon Foundation was launched following this same approach of greenhouse gas (GHG) sequestration through reforestation.

This project has attracted the attention of different sectors and regions, and we have seen a steady stream of visitors from other parts of China and abroad. We are very pleased to have shared our experience and lessons learned – it has really played a demonstrative role as a successful pilot project,” said Li Guiyu, Director of the Project Management Office in the Guangxi Forestry Bureau.

reforestation and forest conservation

 

The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is one of the flexible mechanisms of the Kyoto Protocol intended to reduce the concentration of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere in a cost-effective manner. The CDM allows emission-reduction (or emission removal) projects in developing countries to earn certified emission reduction (CER) credits, each equivalent to one metric ton of carbon dioxide. These CERs can be traded and sold, and used by industrialized countries to meet a part of their emission reduction targets under the Kyoto Protocol.

The World Bank’s BioCarbon Fund, created in 2004, is purchasing credits from over 20 afforestation and reforestation projects under the CDM in more than 16 countries and five regions of the world. The Fund’s resources are allocated to projects on degraded lands: half to projects with environmental restoration purposes, 25 percent for fuel-wood and 21 percent for timber. All of the projects directly benefit poor farmers; in most of them, farmers are planting their own lands.

source: http://www.worldbank.org/en/news/press-release/2012/12/28/reforestation-pilot-in-china-is-earning-carbon-credits

climate change and deforestation

Sacred Seedlings is a global initiative to support forest conservation, reforestation, urban forestry, sustainable agriculture and wildlife conservation. Sustainable land management and land use are critical to the survival of entire ecosystems. Sacred Seedlings is a U.S.-based program that supports the vision of local stakeholders. We have projects ready across Africa. We seek additional projects elsewhere around the world. We also seek volunteers, sponsors and donors of cash and in-kind support.

Reforestation Projects Planned For Southern Oregon

Applegate Valley Site Reforested

With the Pilot Joe timber sale in the Applegate Valley as a backdrop early Tuesday morning, visiting policymakers from Washington, D.C., proclaimed the hybrid logging and restoration project a success.

“I’m proud of this as a pilot project,” said U.S. Interior Secretary Ken Salazar, as he stood on the northwestern flank of Tallowbox Mountain. “But I recognize it is just one pilot and we need to do more.”

reforestation and forest conservation

The BLM will do just that by including at least five additional forest restoration pilot projects in the coming fiscal year on the 2.5 million acres it manages in Western Oregon, he said.

“We want to demonstrate that we can do forestry and timbering and also address the conservation values that are at stake,” Salazar said.

Later that morning, during a town hall session with some 250 people packed into the BLM district office in Medford, Salazar indicated the pilot project in the Applegate will have an impact on the way the BLM harvests timber.

“It will be the essence of what will be included as we more forward with the resource management plans,” he said of plan revisions for each BLM district.

During the town hall meeting, Salazar fielded a wide range of questions and comments regarding the pilot project and other issues. One person said the projects were too small to provide an economic boost, while another warned the BLM was moving too fast on the project. Others were concerned about issues ranging from preserving old-growth forests and wilderness to increasing mining and protecting wild horses.

The idea for the pilot projects took seed in 2010 when Salazar met with forest ecology professors Norm Johnson of Oregon State University and Jerry Franklin of the University of Washington. The professors, along with environmental activists and timber industry representatives, convinced him to try a restoration forestry approach on three pilot projects in southwestern Oregon.

The principles envisioned by Johnson and Franklin preserve trees older than 150 years and avoid entry into roadless areas. The goal is to preserve the largest trees and improve forest health, including protecting northern spotted owl habitat, while producing wood for mills and reducing wildfire danger.

In addition to the middle Applegate Valley project, two other pilot projects are under way on BLM land in Douglas and Coos counties.

However, the 1.5-million-board-foot Pilot Joe timber sale in the Applegate, where logging began late in December, is the first where trees have been harvested. It sold for more than four times its appraised value.

Although the details of the additional pilot projects are not yet available, officials said the first step is to revise regional management plans. Public input will be taken during that process.

Before making the announcement on the mountain Tuesday, Salazar, who was joined by other agency officials, received logging lessons from veteran logger Ed Hanscom, whose Eagle Point firm is logging Pilot Joe.

At one point, Hanscom showed him how to set a choker around a log.

“We need to figure out a way of getting beyond the gridlock of the past,” Salazar said, “and moving forward with sustainable forestry that will sustain the jobs Ed has in his company while at the same time sustaining the conservation values that have been so much a focus of this debate over the last 20 years.”

Neil Kornze, the BLM’s acting deputy director for policy and programs, agreed.

“We hope to clear away some of the underbrush that has been holding us back from active management and doing the right thing for species in this area,” Kornze said.

“I think it represents the future of working together to build a sustainable economy and a sustainable environment,” Dan Ashe, director of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, said of the Pilot Joe project. “This represents real progress.”

Butch Blazer, deputy undersecretary for natural resources and environment at the U.S. Department of Agriculture, echoed similar sentiments.

“The science involved in these pilot projects we are looking at today is the good science that is going to help us create the balance we need,” Blazer said.

“Not only looking at the ecological health of our forests but also looking at the social health of our communities,” he continued. “There is a lot of very important acreage out there we need to restore so we don’t have the horrific wildfires we’ve experienced in the past or the disease kill in some parts of the West.”

Franklin and Johnson, who were also on the Tuesday morning tour, said they were pleased with the results thus far. The BLM personnel took the pilot project from theory and made it work on the ground, Franklin said.

“I hope you all notice there is still a forest there,” Franklin told the assemblage on the mountain. “This is dry forest restoration. When you do dry forest restoration, you leave a forest behind.

“Now, some of our friends in the forest industry referred to this as boutique forestry,” he added. “You look around here and you tell me if this is boutique forestry. We are taking out half of the basil area in these stands. That is a serious operation.”

He was quick to observe it was a landscape approach in which some area is left untouched.

“This isn’t that much different than we would normally do in a thinning operation,” Hanscom said. “I would hope we can do more of this. I’m only cautiously optimistic because something has to be done to deal with the litigation and get forest management out of the courts.”

Hanscom, however, said the restoration approach is not a panacea.

“It’s a great idea but it is not a catch-all for everything,” he cautioned.

After the tour, Salazar reiterated that he was impressed with how the pilot project is developing.

“Ed’s people are working — they have jobs and timber is being produced for the mills,” he said. “At the same time, there is a landscape, ecological restoration program under way.

“We are going to prioritize these pilot projects in the new resource management plans,” he concluded.

climate change and deforestation

Sacred Seedlings is a global initiative to support forest conservation, reforestation, urban forestry, sustainable agriculture and wildlife conservation. Sustainable land management and land use are critical to the survival of entire ecosystems. Sacred Seedlings is a U.S.-based program that supports the vision of local stakeholders. We have projects ready across Africa. We seek additional projects elsewhere around the world. We also seek volunteers, sponsors and donors of cash and in-kind support. Write to Gary Chandler for more information gary@crossbow1.com

Reforesting Uganda’s Nile Basin

World Bank Tests Reforestation Model

With a growing demand for wood products, Uganda must expand its wood resources substantially to reduce the strong pressure on the remaining natural forests. Uganda has one of the highest deforestation rates in the world at approximately 2.7 percent per year. Only a few thousand hectares of timber plantations remain, but at least 65,000 hectares of high yielding plantations are necessary to meet the domestic demand. Investment barriers have hindered tree planting for timber production, which is only viable if public incentives are provided.

endangered species conservation East Africa

The Uganda Nile Basin Reforestation project establishes 2,000 hectares of pine and mixed native species plantations in the Rwoho Central Forest Reserve, grassland areas previously degraded due to deforestation and erosion. The project promotes private- and community-based tree-planting initiatives with different investor shares.

The project design can be easily replicated, and it is planned to extend across the country to a number of deforested public forest reserves. The project became the first African forestry project to be registered under the CDM in August 2009. This project is being implemented by Uganda’s National Forestry Authority (NFA) in association with local community organizations. The Rwoho Environmental Conservation and Protection Association (RECPA) will manage 17% of the project area within the framework of a collaborative forest management agreement. NFA will provide seedlings and technical advice to RECPA, which will in return be in charge of protecting the plantations from fire and the remaining patches of natural forest. RECPA will also link the project with communities in the area.

deforestation and climate change

The expansion of available timber in Uganda is crucial for the country to meet a growing demand of wood and to reduce the pressure on its remaining native forests. In a country with only a few thousand hectares of remaining timber plantations, this project stands as an example of sustainable forest management.  The reserve is also an upper watershed of Lake Victoria with several small rivers. The permanent land-use is also providing several environmental benefits, including the reduction of erosion-induced discharge, the increase of dry-season flows, and the mitigation of ongoing land degradation.

reforestation and carbon capture

The project is generating income from the sale of carbon credits, as well as creating local employment for nursery work and weeding, fire protection, thinning, and pruning. Nearby communities will also benefit from the production of wood fuel. Forest plantations based on native species are very limited in East Africa, and the learning experiences from planting native tree species will decrease the technological barrier and risk of future projects.

reforestation and climate change solution

Sacred Seedlings is a global initiative to support forest conservation, reforestation, urban forestry, sustainable agriculture and wildlife conservation. Sustainable land management and land use are critical to the survival of entire ecosystems. Sacred Seedlings is a U.S.-based program that supports the vision of local stakeholders. We have projects ready across Africa. We seek additional projects elsewhere around the world. We also seek volunteers, sponsors and donors of cash and in-kind support. Write to Gary Chandler for more information gary@crossbow1.com